North Korea has also launched satellites into orbit on long-range rockets that share some of the same technology as missiles.
North Korea is banned from developing nuclear and missile technology under United Nations sanctions. The heat shield test is one example, but the regime has also been experimenting with different fuel sources and testing missiles in various sizes and designs.
Other experts quickly jumped on this as sign - although not conclusive - that North Korea may have been behind the outbreak. The test gives a boost to leader Kim Jong Un as he seeks to show his people that he's standing up to America and South Korea. "This is essentially the weapon with the farthest range they've ever tested".
A North Korean diplomat in charge of US affairs said over the weekend that Pyongyang would hold talks with Washington "under the right conditions".
North Korea's latest missile launch suggests a major step forward in Kim Jong Un's quest to develop a nuclear tipped intercontinental ballistic missile that could strike the USA mainland, analysts say. Over the weekend, North Korea carried out yet another missile test. Independent journalists were not given access to cover the event depicted in this photo.
Even before North Korea gave its account of what happened, the launch caught the eye of experts.
An intercontinental ballistic missile is considered to have a range of more than 6,000 km (3,700 miles).
"I would like to confirm that we are categorically against the expansion of the club of nuclear states, including through the Korean Peninsula", Putin told reporters.
The missile was launched on an unusually high trajectory, with KCNA saying it flew to an altitude of 2,111.5km and travelled 787km before coming down in the Sea of Japan.
North Korea said it fired the missile at a high angle to avoid neighboring countries.
Trump Sanctions Iran over Missiles, Continues Sanctions Relief over Nukes
The US administration is re-evaluating its relationship with Iran, including whether to remain a party to the nuclear deal. The U.S. says the program is a breach of global law because the missiles could carry nuclear warheads in the future.
Schilling also predicts the missile could have flown almost 2,800 miles (or about 4,500 kilometers) if launched on a maximum trajectory - which would put Guam within striking distance of North Korean missles but "won't greatly change the strategic balance" because "aside from Guam, there aren't really any interesting targets in that range". During a 2016 test, the Musudan reached a height of 1,410 kilometers (880 miles).
Jin Meihua, from the Northeast Asia Research Centre in Jilin province, said: "North Korea must have somehow prepared for possible further sanctions before this latest test".
In a unanimously agreed statement, the 15-member council said it was of vital importance that North Korea shows "sincere commitment to denuclearisation through concrete action and stressed the importance of working to reduce tensions".
Sunday's launch was of a "new ground-to-ground medium long-range strategic ballistic rocket" named the Hwasong-12, the official Korea Central News Agency (KCNA) said.
Harris met Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, who also said China could apply more pressure to rein in North Korea.
"The president said while South Korea remains open to the possibility of dialogue with North Korea, it is only possible when the North shows a change in attitude", Yoon Young-chan, Moon's press secretary, told a briefing. State media report that the rocket "verified the homing feature of the warhead under the worst re-entry situation and accurate performance of detonation system".
As with much of North Korea's secretive arms program, this couldn't be independently confirmed. The council said that launches by North Korea reveal development in nuclear weapons delivery systems, which were increasing tensions around the world.
South Korea's Defense Ministry stated that additional analysis is needed, but a spokesperson expressed doubt that North Korea has produced re-entry technology.
Italian Premier Paolo Gentiloni said the G-7 summit his country is hosting later this month would discuss how to deal with the risk North Korea's missile launchings pose to global security.